Thursday, September 22, 2011

Axle Wood - Anogeissus latifolia

Anogeissus latifolia is a tree that grows up to 33 meters high. The leaves are elliptic-obtuse, entire, rounded at both ends. The flowers are greenish yellow, with minute globular heads on short stalks axillary. The fruits are small, yellowish brown or reddish brown, glossy, beaks, wings, and a top seed. Its seed is wedge-shaped.
Common NameAxle-wood tree, gum ghatti, Indian gum, Dhaura, Dhausa, Dhau, Dhawra, Dhow, Bakla, Dindal, Dinduga, Vellay naga, Chiriman.
Scientific synonyms: 
Conocarpus latifolia. In the Himalayas, Axle-wood of the tree is located at altitudes up to 1300 m. On deep soils it can become a great tree, with bole to 15 m long. The leaves are fed to silkworms. The species is native to the semi-arid areas of India. It is hardy, drought easily damaged by fire. Mentioned as an agroforestry species possible.
Environmental requirements:Environmental requirements: Altitude: 1200 m Mean annual temperature: 44 ° C. Average annual rainfall: 625-2250 mm Soil type: Found on a variety of soil types but prefers deep alluvial soils. Does not tolerate water logging.
Phenology:Phenology: In India, A. latifolia is leafless in February-May Flowering: June to September depending on the locality, and the ripe fruits are present from December to March. Leaf flushing begins in the dry season, reaching a peak time before the rains start.
Silvicultural traits:Silvicultural characters: The tree is definitely an applicant if the light seedlings and saplings can withstand some shade. The tree is fairly drought resistant. The plants, however, get killed year after year in dry localities, but have good recuperative powers. It is not very soft gel. It coppices well and tadpoles, but a large seasonal variability is exhibited in the coppicing and pruning. It is susceptible to fire damage and navigation.
Natural regeneration:Natural regeneration: Natural regeneration of A. latifolia occurs through seed and coppice. Requirements for the establishment of natural regeneration is sufficient light, moisture, good drainage and the lack of thick weeds or in growth. Coppicing is invoked to regenerate the natural stands of coppice shoots grow quickly. Dilution of coppice shoots is necessary, as the number of coppice growth is usually produced by more than two.
Artificial reproduction:Artificial reproduction: not much work has been done on the artificial reproduction of this species. It can be raised by planting nursery raised plants or strains.
Nursery techniques:Nursery techniques: stem, usually with 22 cm and the root portion of 5 cm of shooting are prepared from plants two years old. After preparation of jute are wrapped in a damp cloth to prevent drying. The strains are refreshed before planting to remove any dried bits of the shoot and root.
Planting techniques and maintenance:Planting and maintenance techniques: Planting is done in July and August after the onset of monsoon rains. Planting seedlings or stem is in pits of size 30 cm 3 pits dug in advance at a spacing of 3 * 3m. Although the use of bare seed for planting, the seedlings must be torn from the nursery beds with balls of earth, carefully wrapped and transported and planted.
Good rainfall after planting ensures good survival rate. Planting operations should be suspended if no rain is expected for a few days of planting. Bush cutting and weeding are necessary to prevent the removal of seedlings. The planting areas are in need of protection against pests and fire.
Silvicultural treatment:Silvicultural treatment: It worked only as a component of mixed forest species coppice under standards. However, this tree often cut in the interest of the most valuable species such as teak and sal in the slaughter of selection and breeding. Short rotation coppice method is adopted for the harvest of young tender leaves and shoots are rich in tannin.
Seeds are sown densely on raised beds, the soil being mixed with large amounts of coarse sand. The bed is well shaded and 45 cm above the ground. Germination is fairly rapid. The plants are highly susceptible to insect attack. The development of plants is very slow.
Rotation and performance:Rotation and performance: This is a slow growing tree species, even slower in drier locations. Growth in the phase of saplings and pole is relatively faster than in the seedling stage. Stem sections show approximately four rings per cm radius. The harvest of coppice growth rate exhibits faster than seedlings. Once established in natural forests under some form of coppice management, meaning average annual increase of about 1.5 m 3 per ha per year.
Uses:Uses: It is one of the most useful trees in India. Its leaves contain large amounts of tannins, and are used in India for tanning. The tree is the source of Indian gum, also known as gum ghatti, which is used for the printing of banners and other uses. The leaves are also fed by moth Antheraea paphia producing silk Tussah (Tussah), a type of wild silk of commercial importance. Used in the treatment of snake bites and scorpion stings in India. Apiculture: The flowers are an important source of pollen for bees.
Pests and diseases:Pests and diseases: The sapwood is susceptible to Lyctus. Sarcinelli apocynacearum, S. combratcearum, Tripospermum caseariae and T. lougurensis ectoparasites are fungi associated with living leaves. The two dead and dying trees are attacked by stem borers, and Olenecamptus anogeissi Olenecamptus indianus.