Thursday, September 22, 2011

Grey mangrove - Avicennia marina

Avicennia marina, commonly known as the mangrove mangrove gray or white, is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae). As with mangroves, it occurs in intertidal zones of estuarine areas.

Black mangroves are the species most widely distributed mangrove species in Australia the most widely distributed mangrove occur in Australia as far south as Victoria Inlet area, they grow to about 10m and are easily identified by the gray-green foliage and distinctive peg roots.
Kingdom: Plantae 

Sub Kingdom: Tracheobionta 
Super Division: Spermatophyta
Division: Magnoliophyta 
Class: Magnoliopsida 
Sub Class: Asteridae
Ordo: Scrophulariales 
Family: Acanthaceae 
Genus: Avicennia 
Species: Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh.
It is distributed along the eastern coast of Africa, Asia, South West, across the south and south-east Asia, and Australia. It occurs in New Zealand between 34 and 38 degrees south, and its Maori name is "Manawa." It is one of the few mangroves in arid regions of the Arabian Peninsula coastal environments sabkah primarily in the United Arab Emirates , Qatar, Oman, and in similar environments on both sides of the Red Sea to Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and eastern Sudan, and southern Iran on the Persian Gulf coast. It is also found in the mangroves of South Africa where he is one of the two most dominant mangroves. in Indonesia, they name is Api-Api.
Grey mangroves grow as a shrub or a tree at a height of three to ten meters, or up to 14 meters in the tropics. Habit is an arrangement of multiple gnarled branches. It is composed of smooth gray bark thin, stiff, brittle flakes. This can be white, a feature described in the common name. The leaves are thick, five to eight centimeters long, a bright, bright green on the upper surface and silvery white or gray, with very little hair matted on the surface below. As with other species Avicennia, it has aerial roots (pneumatophores), which evolve at a height of about 20 centimeters and a diameter of one centimeter. These allow the plant to absorb oxygen, which is deficient in its habitat.
These roots also anchor the plant in the frequent flooding of sea water in the flexible substrate systems tide. The flowers range from white to yellow gold, less than a centimeter in diameter, and occur in clusters of three to five. The fruits contain large cotyledons surrounding the stem of a new seedling. This produces a large seed fleshy, often germinating on the tree and fall like a seed. Mangrove Grey may have retarded growth under conditions of water that are too salty, but thrive throughout their height in the waters where both salt and fresh water are present. The species can tolerate high salinity by excreting salt through its leaves.
Grey mangrove tree is highly variable, with a number of ecotypes, and forms closely resembling other species. It has been reported to tolerate extreme weather conditions, high winds, and various pests and diseases. He is a pioneer in the muddy soil conditions with a pH of 6.5 to 8, but does not tolerate shade. A number of botanists have proposed the division of the species, but currently three subspecies are recognized

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