Friday, August 12, 2011

Reonja - Acacia Leucophloea

Indonesian Names: pilang (Javanese, Sudanese) opilan (Madura), Pelangi (Madura, Bali). Burma: TA-Nong. Thailand: chalaep Daeng (CV), phayaa May (Kanchanaburi). Vietnam: a buffer, a Kawa (Thuan Hai).

Origin and geographic distributionAcacia Leucophloea was born in the South and Southeast Asia, where it is in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia (Java, Timor, Sumbawa).
Tannin-containing bark was used in the leather industry in Indonesia, and to a lesser extent, India, until the year 1950. Until the 1940s, the tree had grown in commercial plantations in Indonesia for this purpose. The bark is also used for the spirits (Arak) to prepare solid fibers are used locally to make fishing nets. The wood of Acacia leucophloea is used in the construction and although some work for the furniture. It is also popular for firewood and is suitable for the manufacture of coal |. The consumption of cooked vegetables and sprouted seeds (Hale) was reported from Java. Stem and roots produce a gum that is used for medicinal purposes. The pods and leaves are a source of high protein diet. In Tamil Nadu (India), farmers grow leucophloea Acacia for soil improvement. Trees are also planted around plantations and wood fire.

Production and international trade in ancient times leucophloea Acacia was grown commercially for tannin. Today the species is no longer commercially viable and production figures are difficult to obtain. There is no international trade.
The bark contains 11-20% tannins, with an average of 15%, tannin is the highest in old trees. The tannin is difficult to achieve, and if the tanning process is slow. Because of its low sugar content like compounds, tannic acid-forming properties have little. Tannin is the type and proanthocyanidin leather colors red, darker red color is easy to light. In bark tanneries pilang was often used in combination with bark trengguli (Cassia fistula L.). In Indonesia, the bark pilang been replaced by the best tanning bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Black mesh), after World War II |. Fodder (leaves and pods) containing 1.9% digestible fat, 7.1% digestible protein and 12.4% digestible carbohydrates. The hydrocyanic acid content varies throughout the year. In India, the values ​​ranging from zero (in December) to 240 mg / kg hydrogen cyanide (May / June) was measured in the leaves, and values ​​above 400 mg / kg in the cloves from October to April (with a maximum of about 1000 mg / kg in November). When hydrogen cyanide at 200 mg / kg than animals should not be used as the sole source of animal feed |.  

The roots bear nodules containing nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. Seed weight is small, about 37 000 weight of 1 kg of seeds |. The heartwood is bright red, the sapwood is greyish-white. The wood is strong (class II in Indonesia) and durable (class III in Indonesia) for indoor use. In contact with moist soil, it decays rapidly. Density is 710-890 kg/m3.


Deciduous tree or shrub to concentrate, 10-35 m high, with deep taproot, few lateral roots, bark pale, wide crown umbel. Young trees are often densely thorny suckers, the lower branches armed with straight or slightly curved paired stipular spines, usually dark brown or black, less often white, 2.5 cm long. Leaves bipinnate, pinnae 4-13 pairs, spine 3.5 to 8.5 cm long, 60-30 pairs of leaflets, linear, 3-11 x 0.5 mm to 1.7 mm. Flowers yellowish-white heads subglobose, about 1 cm in diameter, in large terminal panicles dense 30-cm long, 0.4 to 1.3 cm long stalks. Flowers sessile, calyx 0.8 to 1.2 mm, 1.2 to 2 mm long, corolla, stamens 20-25. Fruit linear, curved or straight pod, 6-15 (-20) cm x 7-11 mm x 3 mm, woody, glabrescent, dark brown, 5-12 (-20) position, indehiscent. Seeds vary greatly, the sphincters, ellipsoid or trapezoid, from 5.5 to 6.5 mm x 4.5 mm, compressed, gray-brown.
Growth and development, only a small proportion of seed germination. Pretreatment of seeds with warm water improves germination. In Indonesia, treated seeds took 75 days to germinate. Bloom at the end of the rainy season / early dry season. Leaf drop occurs for a short period at the beginning of the rainy season. There is some disagreement in the literature as to whether the trees bear fruit every year.


The range of ecological leucophloea Acacia is wide: it occurs in different areas with a monsoon, semi-arid (rainfall of 600 mm / year) to humid (2000 mm) conditions, at an altitude ranging from sea level to 550 m sand-marl calcareous heavy clay. Plants have a lot of light and space to grow into mature trees. In nature, the tree is done individually and sometimes in groups in mixed hardwood forests on soils with medium to low fertility. It is never found in persistent, dense forests on fertile soils. Acacia Leucophloea tolerate soils that are periodically very dry soils with compaction characteristics, due to the adaptability of the root system of low oxygen availability. It does not survive on poorly drained sites.

Propagation and planting of plantations of Acacia leucophloea be determined by direct seeding, using from 10 to 12 seeds per hole, a 2 mx 1 m. If enough space and light are available, has abundant natural regeneration was observed in Tamil Nadu (India) in 1000 plants / ha. It is advisable to plant vines in combination with a ground cover that provides effective, or intercropping with other species more shade in the juvenile phase to give. In mixed plantings, however, must be carefully chosen because additional leucophloea Acacia species is easily suppressed because of the slow growth in childhood. In combination with other species should be planted in small groups.

Monoculture farming, leucophloea Acacia maintenance needs intensive and costly to the dense vegetation that grows because the trees provide shade not to delete.

Diseases and pests 

Seed-borne infections caused by rust galls ponderosum Hapalophragmiopsis tumor amorphous. The seeds of Acacia leucophloea severely contaminated by a small beetle of the genus by a beetle and weevil Caryoborus. Caterpillar Parasites were also observed. The species is fire-resistant bark and restored easily.


For the production of tannin, the bark is stripped at the beginning of the growing season because the high water content facilitates the process. The bark is cut into 50 cm x 10 cm, and dried in the sun for 2-3 days. During drying of the bark loses a third of its initial weight.

Performance figures for production from plantations in Indonesia with a rotation of 12 years indicate an annual production of dry bark, from 8 kg / tree in diameter class 10-14 cm and 81 kg / tree for 30-35 class diameter. Annual wood production is about 15 m3 ha (whole tree), 11 m3/ha thick wood (at breast height diameter> 7 cm) and 9 m3/ha trunk clear. Under conditions of wide spacing of agroforestry systems in India (Tamil Nadu), an annual yield of 100 kg of pods / tree and a 20-23% increase in height growth and dry matter yield of forage sorghum grown under trees are reported.

Post-harvest treatment 

After the bark was air-dried in the factory, it is chopped into small pieces and put into the tanning drums extraction. Only 3-4 days may elapse between harvesting and extraction, as fungal degrade the color and quality of the extract. After extraction against the current continuous first with warm water, then cold (below 60? C), the resulting extract is concentrated in a triple effect evaporator and finally in a vacuum evaporator until the copper content desired moisture. The extract is stored in containers.


Leucophloea Acacia is a promising species for agroforestry and silvopastoral including for. It can be used on sites that suffer from compaction due to overcrowding. It produces good forage rich in protein and enriched the soil with nitrogen fixation. Crown open emits enough light to allow the culture under the trees. However, Acacia leucophloea yet received much attention in agroforestry and silvopastoral research.

Scientific classification 

Kingdom: Plantae
Order: Fabales 
Family: Fabaceae 
Genus: Acacia 
Species: A. leucophloea

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