Thursday, August 18, 2011

Jackfruit - Artocarpus heterophyllus

Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus or Artocarpus integra still a relative with a banyan tree [Ficus Benjamina] and mulberry [Morus alba]. Jackfruit, banyan, mulberry in the taxonomy within the family or the family Moraceae banyan. Why? For all plant species in the family Moraceae have the same characteristics, namely: 1. Leaf buds are protected by the stipula or leaves the fulcrum 2. Hypantodium bouquets or flower pots, where the male flowers and female flowers are located in the growth or swelling of the base rate; 3. Having cystolith on stem and leaf epidermis cells; 4. White gummy.

Jackfruit trees are generally of medium size, up to about 20 m high, although there's 30 yards. Circular cylindrical rod, up to about 1 meter in diameter. Editorial dense and bushy, broad and rounded when in the open. All parts of plants removing thick white sap when injured.
Single leaf, scattered, 1-4 cm stemmed, leaves a bit thick like leather, stiff, flat edged, oval to elliptic inverse (lengthwise), 3.5 to 12 × 5-25 cm, with base narrowed little by little, and the short end of the tapered or slightly tapered. Fulcrum pointy oval leaves, up to 8 cm in length, easily fall out and leave scars like a ring.
Jackfruit monoecious plants (monoecious), inflorescence appears at the armpit leaves on the shoots are short and specific, which grows on the trunk or parent branch. Male flowers in a hump-shaped rod or spindle, 1-3 × 3-8 cm, with a clear ring of fleshy excrescence at the base, dark green, with yellowish pollen and smelling faintly fragrant when ripe. Flowers jackfruit called babal. Once past the age of cooking, babal will rot (overgrown with mold) and blackened during the still on the tree, before finally falling. Female flowers in a single nodule or in pairs, cylindrical or oval, dark green.
Fruit compound (syncarp) elongated spindle-shaped, often uneven in length, up to 100 cm, on the outer side of the soft form of short spines. 'Pulp', which is actually the development of the flower tent, golden yellow when ripe, fragrant, sweet hard, fleshy, sometimes filled with fluid (nectar) is sweet. Seeds oval to slightly flattened ellipsoid, 2-4 cm long, respectively covered by a thin brown seed coat such as leather, hard endocarp of whitish clay, and soft eksokarp. Chips seeds are not symmetric.
Jackfruit mainly harvested fruit. "Pulp" that is often eaten cooked in a fresh condition, mixed into ice, crushed into a drink (juice), or processed into various types of ethnic foods: lunkhead jackfruit, jack fruit compote, jams jackfruit, jackfruit-fried-flour, jackfruit chips, and others. Jackfruit is also used as fragrances and minumnan ice cream, made of honey-jackfruit, concentrate or flour. Jackfruit seeds, known as "concrete", can be boiled and eaten as a source of additional carbohydrates. 

The leaves of jackfruit is the preferred feed goats, sheep and cattle. Bark fibrous, it can be used as a rope and in the past also used as clothing material. Resin used in the mixture to trap the birds, to putty (patch) boats and others.
The wood is yellow on the terrace, good quality and easy to do. This wood is fairly strong, durable and resistant to termites or fungal attack, and has an interesting pattern, easy planed smooth and shiny when rubbed with oil. Because it is often used as jackfruit wood home furnishings, furniture, building construction, ship construction to the instrument. From the wood also produced a yellow dye for coloring the robes of Buddhist priests. 

The leaves of this plant jg recommended by ayurvedic medicine as antidiabetic drugs because jackfruit leaf extracts give effect to hypoglycemia (Chandrika, 2006). In addition jackfruit tree leaves can also be used as facilitating breastfeeding, ulcers (topical), and injuries (external drug). Young jackfruit pulp (tewel) used as food and vegetables that contain carbohydrates albuminoid. While the jackfruit seeds can be used as a cough medicine and tonic. Jackfruit seeds can be processed into flour which is used as raw material for food industry (food ingredient mixture). 

Efficacy of wood as an anti-spasmodic and sedative, fruit pulp as an expectorant, leaves as laktagog. Jackfruit wood is considered superior to teak for furniture manufacture, on turning the building construction, masts, poles horses and stables for cows, paddles, tools, and musical instruments. Bark sap has also been used as drug fever, worms, and as anti-inflammatory drugs. Jackfruit tree can be used as traditional medicine. Chemical content in the wood is morin, sianomaklurin (tanning substances), flavones, and tannins.

In addition, there is also a wood skin that new flavonoid compounds, namely morusin, artonin E, sikloartobilosanton, and artonol B (Ersam T, 2001). Bioaktivitasnya proven empirical as anticancer, antiviral, antiinflammatory, diuretil, and antihypertensives.
Taxonomy :

Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Nation: Urticales
Tribe: Moraceae
Marga: Artocarpus
Type: Artocarpus integra


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