Thursday, August 11, 2011

Anoa Lowlands - Bubalus depressicornis Smith

Anoa is unique to Sulawesi. There are two types, namely Anoa: Mountain Anoa (Bubalus quarlesi) and Anoa Lowlands (Bubalus depressicornis). Both lived in a pristine forest man. Their appearance is similar to a deer, weighing 150-300 kg. Both species are found in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Since the 1960's endangered status. It is estimated there are currently fewer than 5,000 survive tail. Anoa often hunted for its skin, horns and meat. 

The taxonomic classification of the Anoa is controversial (Groves, 1969), and although the debate continues over the existence of two kinds of Anoa, instruments using cytochrome B gene haplotypes suggests that the two lines are different types (Schreiber et al., 1999). These two species are placed in different genus Anoa in the past (eg, Hooijer, 1948), but both morphological and genetic reassessments tend to its inclusion support as a subgenus in Bubalus sex, Bubalus arnee (Groves , 1969, Tanaka et al, 1996) .. However, further analysis to their phylogenetic relationships (Kikkawa et al, 1997., Pitra et al, 1997). To clarify. 


It is endemic to lowland Anoa the Indonesian island of Sulawesi (Celebes) and remote islands in Indonesia. The total range occupied by this species is approximately 3,000 km2 (Hedges, 2000). The island of Buton in Southeast Sulawesi is one of the last strongholds of lowland Anoa. No conclusive theory allows explanation of the coexistence of two similar types anoas in Sulawesi, and it is still unclear whether they currently live sympatrically or if they are separated by a height or a different type of segregation ( burton et al, 2005)
Total height of the shoulders is about 95 to 110 cm and body mass from 200 to 300 kg. The limbs are short and the body is stocky (Rabor, 1977). Neonates are red-brown with dark brown legs and a black back line. Calves a few months old light brown or dark brown bodies later colored slate. The Development of a slate-colored coat occur in 3 to 4 years in men and women. In most individuals the slate-colored fur darkening to black, but some adult females can be quite brown or brown tinted. Change in coat color and shape of the horns can be used in estimating the age of Tamaraw (Kuehn, 1986). White markings are present above the hooves and on the inner lower front legs, similar to the lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis). White markings are also present on the inside of the ears (Custodio et al, 1996) .. Adults are present short horns (35-50 cm), grow upwards and are triangular in cross section. Sexual dimorphism is low, the man presented a thicker neck than the female.
Little is known about the ecology of the lowland Anoa because of his elusive behavior. The largest species lives in lowland forests of Sulawesi, and seems to prefer swampy areas in coastal forests, including mangroves (melic, 1995). This browser type is supposed to play an important role in the spread of many seeds. Food intake consists of seeds of Lithocarpus spp. Castanopsis sp. and Leptospermum spp. Ficus spp. Eugenia spp. Palaquium spp. Antidesma spp., Young banana trees, bamboo and rattan shoots are also favored. Anoa drinking seawater has been reported (Whitten et al., 1987). Mature lowland Anoa apparently live singly or in pairs, rather than herds (Dolan, 1965). The lowlands are extremely antisocial anoas in captivity and can be very aggressive towards people especially during pregnancy, a number of reports of this kind of Anoa attack people with his sharp horns are included. The horn-wash the trees and ground-scratching by adult man after defecation appears to be an expression of territorial behavior (Mustari, 1995). They seem more active during the night, while staying hidden in dense vegetation during the day, but such activity rhythm can result from human failures are repeated. The lowland Anoa appreciates wallow in the mud. Estimates of population range from 1.1 to 1.3 individuals/km2 (Burton et al, 2005) .. Sexual maturity occurs after 2 or 3 years. A calf is born after 9 to 10 months of gestation. It is unclear whether reproduction is seasonal in the wild, but lowland anoas reproduce throughout the year in captivity. Lifespan in captivity is 20-30 years. Of lowland native predators are the reticulated python Anoa (Python reticulatus).


This species is threatened by poachers, forest habitat destruction for agriculture and wood gathering, and possibly infectious disease transmission from domestic livestock. The lowland Anoa mainly poached for meat for local consumption. Many are also thought to anoas accidentally caught in traps laid for wild pigs, including in protected areas (eg in the Lambu Sango Nature Reserve on the island of Buton). This extremely shy species is very sensitive to human disturbance (hunting, timber, rattan exploitation, etc). Wild population size is estimated between 3,000 and 5,000 people, but is in rapid decline. The population of anoas in Tangkoko-Dua Saudara Nature Reserve (8,745 ha) has experienced a decrease of 90% between 1978 and 1994 (O'Brien and Kinnaird, 1996) and is now extinct (Burton et al, 2005) .. Important populations still exist in the more remote parts of Sulawesi, where the poaching pressure is lower (eg, Lore Lindu National Park, Bogani Nani Warta-Bone National Park, Nature Reserve and Tanjung Peropa). However, the continuing economic crisis in Sulawesi, strengthened by the recent regional development agency and local obsession with the revenue gain from excessive extraction of natural resources to put pressure on current and future conservation of the remaining forests. Almost all the lowland forests of Sulawesi have already disappeared. The timber company is profitable and therefore the politicians, regulatory officials and other stakeholders.

Because of its hilly topography, Buton island still has a considerable amount of forest, but it is badly damaged and is still threatened. Moreover, despite the small size of Buton Island and the poor soil fertility, this area is still a transmigration area destination. Unfortunately, all resettlement areas often developed at the expense of the Lambu Sango Nature Reserve, serious consequences for the habitat of the Anoa. The lowland Anoa is included in Annex I of CITES. Ex situ conservation programs are being implemented for the low-lying Anoa in the U.S., Europe and Asia, but the internal problems individually allocated to appropriate taxa seriously complicate the management of this captive population. There was a doubling in ten years to a total of 125 animal species included in the pedigree to achieve in December 1998. However, several people suspected the result of hybridization with Bubalus quarlesi (Nötzold, 1999). The largest group of this species is found trapped in the Peace River Center for the Conservation of Tropical Ungulates in Arcadia, Florida.

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