Thursday, August 18, 2011

Cinnamomum tree - Cinnamomum burmanni Bl.

Is native of Family and Genus Cinnamomum Lauraceae. In English is often known as the Cinnamomum tree. Usually referred to as desert cassia. While in the Indonesian language is called Cinnamon. In the Java language commonly known as "Kaneel" Java. Cinnamomum burmannii deployment in Indonesia is widely available in the region of Sumatra, particularly in the areas of West Sumatra and Kerinci. The name of the region of Sumatra Holim, holim soft-modang Siak Siak (Batak) kanigar, cinnamon (Malay), Madang Manihi skin (Minangkabau). Java mentek hustle, Kiama (probe), kanyengar (Kangean). Kesingar (Nusa Tenggara), kecingar, cingar (Bali), NETO (Sasak), kaninggu (Sumba), Puu Ndinga (Flores).

Lauraceae Cinnamomum burmannii as citizens, residents of areas that are fully covered with over 1000 species are divided into about 50 genera. This plant is also found in areas of Sri Lanka. But daerh Sri Lanka, the bark is thinner than the bark of Cinnamomum burmannii that exist in Indonesia. Two known varieties, early varieties are dark red young leaves and two varieties of green leafy purple. The first variety consists of two types, is the type of deep red buds and pink type. Widely grown varieties in the central area and production in West Sumatra Kerinci is the first variety. The second variety is found only in a small population. Cinnamon red caps have better quality, but its production is less than the cinnamon green sprout.
Ecology and distribution of the original forest grows wild in Malaysia, China and Indonesia at an altitude of 1000 m to 1500 m altitude with a temperature of 18 º to 23 º. Plants can be grown at altitudes from 0 to 2000 m altitude, but the best and many cultivated with satisfactory production is at an altitude of 500 m to 1500 m altitude. The soil most suitable is a fertile, friable, slightly sandy and rich in organic matter. In clay soils, the situation is worse.
Production centers in West Sumatra and the ground is Andosol latosol, grown on mountain slopes, both slightly inclined or steep. On a sandy soil will give the skin the most fragrant. In the low growth much faster than in high places, but where the skin is thinner resulting lower, and it was also somewhat lacking. The slow growth in high places, but its skin is thicker and better quality. Cinnamon plants require a lot of rain, evenly distributed throughout the year and humid. Desired rainfall is 2000 mm to 2500 mm per year, without dry months. The best type of precipitation, which contained mainly in the area of ​​Kerinci.
Cinnamomum riding roots and stems have a strong and tough, woody and branched. Shaped trees with a height of 6-12 m. Sometimes also reaches 15 m. Older branches bare. The skin and leaves when crushed a strong smell of cinnamon. Where have all the distinctive aromatic smell of cinnamon. The leaves are simple leaves (sometimes reinforced bow) that seats scattered, sometimes conflicting, has no leverage. 3 Berpenulangan leaves long-stalked by 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm. In the process, or its opposite leaves change color. Initially light green and pink on top. The leaves are oval or elongated elliptical with rounded or blunt conical tip, 4-7 cm 6-15 times stronger leather.

The flowers are small bud ditangkai a long and soft, turn and sit in the axil of a branch of gray hair. Is the panicle of flowers. The flowers are unisexual flowers and tents are generally Taju 2-5 and 3-5 mm long, yellowish-white, from the outside looks like gray-haired money, but not to fall a little opening and in a very quiet after flowering will tear section. Usually shipped on the edge of the axis of flower. This flower essence has four bedrooms. Flowers Cinnamomum burmannii has 12 stamens 3-4 in circles, usually dressed in four inner circle are sterile. Benangsari third circle is a gland in the middle of the stem juice. The fruit is a fruit Buni, about 1 cm long. In the circle consists of a number of stamens is equal to the number of sheets in the circle of tents flower, which in the inner circle are often sterile, which staminodium anthers opening by valves. Fruit ascend or contained in the base interest curve. Where is the one with 2 anatropous ovule that in integuments. The fruit looks like a stone fruit. The seeds have no endosperm, where the institutions have a large institutions left in it. Leaves and bark (Gelam) contained cells that contain essential oils. These plants included in C3 plants
Kingdom: Plantae 
Division: Magnoliophyta 
Class: Magnoliopsida 
Order: Laural 
Family: Lauraceae 
Genre: Cinnamon 
Species: Cinnamomum burmannii
Skin Padang Cinnamon is the bark of Cinnamomum burmannii commercially known as Cassia vera. The smell is aromatic, slightly sweet, slightly spicy and brown. Macroscopic. Pieces of skin: a newspaper, roll rather long, slightly flattened or file which consists of stacks of several pieces of skin are rolled longitudinally, to 1 m long, thick skin of 1 mm to 3 mm or more. The outer surface: it is not bergabus brown or yellowish brown to reddish brown, striped pale wavy longitudinal and transverse short or protruding slightly grooved, as bergabus blackish brown-green or green, sometimes there are patches of moss crust color a little brown or white. The inner surface: old reddish brown to blackish brown. Old uneven fracture. Microscopy. In the outer layer of skin that has not been ruled out is: the cuticle of the epidermis with yellow cork layer composed of multiple cells is brown, the wall tangential and radial walls thick berlignin, the cork cambium Clearly, no wall thickening. Cortex: is composed of several layers of parenchyma cells with brown walls, which are groups of stone cells, mucous cells and cells of oil.

Parenchymal cells: inside there are many starch grains or prism-shaped crystal of calcium oxalate. Sklerenkim layer: below the cortical parenchyma, almost incoherent, consisting of three or more layers sklerida, among them there are a number of small groups of fibers periskel. Sklereida: isodiametrik form, sometimes a little stretched tangentially, thickening of the wall U-shaped in the wall and radial walls thicker than the outer walls, layered, yellowish bernoktah, berlignin thick, broad light, sometimes containing starch grains. Periskel fibers: very thick walls, unclear, berlignin, narrow lumen, the fibers of small diameter of the center line of stone cells. Phloem secondary consists of tangential lines filter networks, alternating with the phloem parenchyma between the parenchyma cells are like the oil cells and mucus in the cortex parenchyma containing starch grains and crystal as in the cortex .
Secondary phloem fibers: usually single or in small groups aligned to the tangential direction, the fiber walls are very thick, clear, slightly berlignin, fiber line to 3.5 microns, a narrow lumen. The radius of the bone: consists of one cell to two cells, containing starch grains or the form of calcium oxalate crystal prisms of small, crystalline pith of the fingers over the glass in parenchyma phloem. Powder: fawn. The fragment identifier is sklereida with irregular thickening of the wall, fiber and fiber periskel phloem, starch grains and calcium oxalate crystal prism, in bulk or in the parenchyma, parenchyma cells with mucus or oils of cells, the cells of cork and fiber sklerenkim.

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