Wednesday, August 24, 2011

Nepenthes aristolochioidesis, Kantung Semar Endemic Sumatera

Nepenthes aristolochioidesis is a tropical pitcher plant endemic to the island of Sumatra, where it grows at elevations of 1800-2500 meters above sea level. And has a morphology very rare pitcher, after the opening of a nearly vertical traps.
Is formed aristolochioides specific epithet of the Aristolochia genus name and ending oides Latin, meaning "like." It indicates that the similarity of the pitchers that bear species, both in shape and pigmentation, and specialized Aristolochia flowers.
The first time aristolochioides Nepenthes Willem Meyer on August 5, 1956. Holotype collected, Meyer 6542, the history of Mount Tujuh (Tudjuh) in Jambi on the height of 2000 meters. And deposited in the National Herbarium of the Netherlands (L) in Leiden, but in relatively poor condition. And held in isotype Bogoriense grassland (BO), and the herbarium of the Botanical Gardens, Bogor (formerly lush botanical gardens at Buitenzorg) in Java.
Although he described as "a new type?" Been overlooked to a large extent a sample of more than 30 years. In 1988, became a botanist Joachim Nerz aware of it when you visit the herbarium of the University of Leiden. Has coined the name aristolochioides N. Very early on, was already in use in 1994 to refer to this official (at the time is described) taxon. That same year, he wondered, taxonomist January Schlauer supposed brutal mouth jar aristolochioides N. In email correspondence with Matthew Jeep plant, which was preparing a review of sex at that time. Schlauer wrote that he had examined a sample of this species (Meyer 7426) and the vertical insertion apparently from the mouth of the pitcher may be the result of the process of conservation, where the traps are "compressed along the longitudinal axis" . In the summer of 1996, and met with Nerz Schlauer Palmengarten and Mayer in Frankfurt, where Meyer has shown a photograph of the types of ambiguities. Side by side with Catherine Hinderhofer, Nerz organized a field trip to Sumatra in June 1996 and was successful in discovering aristolochioides N. In the wild.
Nepenthes aristolochioides plant climbing mountains. Stem, which may be branched, and retained and grows to 8 meters in length and 5 mm in diameter. Internodes are cylindrical to obtusely angular in cross section and long up to 15 cm. Axillary buds and clear, especially in this species, is 1.5 to 7 mm above the leaf axils.

Leaves skin low. And the plate are linear, or lanceolate spathulate - lanceolate in shape and up to 20 cm in length and 5 cm wide. And has acute or obtuse summit that may be semi-rarely peltate. Reduce it gradually toward the base, amplexicaul become partially (one third of the stem clamp to half the circumference), and rarely, slightly decurrent. Arrested leaf auricles short stems, while those that originate auricles not climbing. From two to five longitudinal veins present on both sides of the midrib. They arise from the base of the paper, and sometimes along the length of the midrib, and limited to the distal third  to two-thirds of the plate, as they work in parallel with a margin of shale. This longitudinal veins are not evident in the samples dried. Reticular veins pinnate and irregular and unclear. They are few in number, arise indirectly to the curve at the end of the day towards the top of shale. Lower surface laminar glands carries low. Tendrils up to 15 cm in length. That rose carrying pitchers are usually about twice as long as the plates and has no curl.
It is noted Nepenthes aristolochioides to show relatively little dimorphism between the pitchers in the lower and upper. Is for a short time only, and reduced production of rosette pitchers on small rosettes by the manufacturer begins to climb, or in the branches from the trunk of mountain climbing. They arise from the ends of the tendrils, forming a wide curve of 3-5 mm. Are oppressive widely in the lower two-thirds and a spherical figure above, which form a dome over the open jar. That up to 7 cm in length and 3 cm in width. A pair of wings (≤ 9 mm wide) runs down the front jug and cover, either along the surface of the trap in my stomach, or be limited to the upper part only. This wing extremist elements with up to 10 mm. Pitcher mouth is ovate to orbicular and up to 1.5 cm in diameter. The horizontal, or oblique insertion or nearly vertical. Glandular region covers almost the entire inner surface of the jar, but are often absent from the upper parts of the dome jar. Overarched and digestive glands, and less of them measuring 0.2 to 0.3 mm in diameter and located in areas with a density of about 200/cm2, while the smaller upper and present in areas with density of about 500/cm2. In the oral cavity flattened and broad, incurved and wide up to 20 mm. Spaced ribs for up to 0.5 mm apart. Margin lined interior with small teeth that are curled in a 2-3 times tops, as long as it is wide. Pitcher lid or operculum is orbicular - cordate or oval, and up to 1.5 cm wide, and bears no appendages. Large nectar glands present on the entire surface of the lower lid, especially around midfield. Three prominent veins and are usually found on either side of midfield cover for. Is inserted to stimulate broad and flattened (≤ 7 mm long) at the base of the cover. Has been described in different ways, either branched or unbranched (simple).Pitcher of aristolochioides N. Longitudinal section, showing a broad, incurved and oral cavity region and the wide glandular
Pitchers Supreme arise gradually from both sides of tendrils, forming a curve 10 mm wide. It is hardly a repressive in the bottom half and utriculate above, which form a dome over the crater visible pitcher. It is often the face of the trap of my stomach flattened significantly. Air traps are larger than their counterparts the floor, up to 15 cm in length and 8 cm in width. They usually take place in the ribs of the wings, although these may not be clear at all. Mouth jar is under the top, oval to circular, and measures up to 4 cm in diameter. Angle it more than it was in sharp decline pitchers, and can be placed almost vertically. Usually glandular region covers the basal surface of a glass jar two thirds of the Interior, or may be entirely glandular pitcher. Overarched little glands and digestive tract, and those near the bottom from 0.3 to 0.4 mm in diameter and occur in areas with a density of about 200/cm2, while those in the upper 0.2 to 0.3 mm in diameter and occur in areas with a density about 250/cm2. Is expanding the mouth cavity, which is up to 20 mm wide, incurved, and settled internally, and the formation of "entrance corridor," a structure similar to lobster. It extends up to 2 mm on the outer fringes, which are rounded. There is often a gap of up to 5 mm between the two lobes of the oral cavity near the base of the cover. In the oral cavity carries ribs up to 0.8 mm and spaced up to 0.8 mm apart,] and ending in the teeth that are not clear 2-3 times, as long as it is wide. The nectar is located between the large ribs. Cover pot is orbicular to ovate, often held almost horizontally, in the right corner of the mouth of the pitcher. He has to bring emarginate summit and the base slightly cordate, and measures up to 4 cm in length by 3 cm in width. Does not have any appendages, but carries many of the nectar glands, which are spread quite evenly across the entire lower surface of the lid. This is a generalization of the nectar briefly, bordered by a thin elliptical, measuring about 0.3 mm in diameter. When you become a little larger and more densely packed around the midfield. Asymmetric rims are clear and have the highest near the apical end of the cover. Three to four prominent veins located on either side of midfield cover for. To stimulate broad and flattened, measuring up to 10 mm in length. 04/02 sharp point it at its peak, and in various forms, described as either simple or branched.

Nepenthes aristolochioides racemose inflorescence has up to 30 centimeters. Has both the peduncle and rachis up to 15 centimeters, although the latter are usually shorter in female plants. The peduncle is up to 4 mm in diameter. Pedicels are one simple bracteolate flowered. Basalmost that up to 12 mm long, while those higher up the spine up only 6 mm. Tepals and oval and up to 4 mm. The fruits of up to 20 mm and 4 mm wide, and with lanceolate valves. Filiformis seeds.

Most parts of the plant and glabrous. Where present, indumentum inconspicuous; found on the hair on the paper axils, midribs, and margins shale, and parts of the pitchers (especially around the oral cavity and on, cover and developing pitchers). And indumentum sparse and consists of short hair, simple or branched irregularly appressed, which is a white to silver in color and measure up to 0.2 mm, and sometimes up to 2 mm in length.

Trunk, platelets, and tendrils midribs and yellow green. On the outer surface, and pitchers-and-white to reddish brown with numerous reddish to purple spots, with both lower and upper pitchers and show similar discoloration. The dark spots are often more intense at the top of the jar. Oral cavity and is usually dark red or purple, dark, especially in the rosette pitchers. And the undersurface of the cover of dark red or purple throughout, while the upper surface speckled like the rest of the pitcher. Inner surface of the pitcher white to light yellow all the time. Herbarium specimens and brown to dark brown, and maintain a pitchers dark spots and clear.

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